Chapter 12 AI and Society 5.0

12.1 AI: A technological revolution

12.1.1 To remember

  • “Great responsibility follows inseparably from great power” is from the French National Convention in 1793.
    • It is still of the utmost importance in this AI day and age.
  • What is known as the “AI revolution” is an incredibly powerful tool.
    • And it is also a very dangerous one.
  • 4 pillar theoretical framework and case studies
    • Public, Private, Society, Individual Dimensions

12.1.2 Myths about AI (Bentley, 2018)

  • Myth 1: A self-modifying AI will make itself super-intelligent
    • Without the right kinds of problems to solve, intelligence cannot emerge or increase (Taylor et al. 2015)
  • Myth 2: With enough resources (neurons/computers/memory) an AI will be more intelligent than humans
    • Intelligence requires appropriate structure
  • Myth 3: As the speed of computers doubles every 18 months (Moore’s law), AI will exploit this computing power and grow exponentially cleverer
    • Intelligence requires comprehensive testing

12.1.3 Globalization and IR 4.0

  1. New geographies

  2. New Technologies: Industrial Revolution 4.0

12.1.4 Building up the IR4.0 infrastructure

  • Eric Schmidt compared the momentum of AI development to the moon race

  • Interview at GS (2018). Eric Schmidt: “The Artificial Intelligence Revolution”.

12.1.5 AI Timeline

12.1.6 From the 4th Industrial Revolution to Society 5.0

12.1.7 Why is it a revolution? An augmented perspective

  1. Technology
  • Engineering Schools
    • Sub-fields: AI, Data Mining
  1. Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics
    • Statistics
    • Operations Research
  1. Big Data
  • Internet of Things
    • Smart Mobility
    • Health Sector
    • (Finance, Insurance, Smart Life, etc.)
  1. Big Brains
    • More engineers in India than baby born in the US

12.1.8 Some AI keywords

12.1.9 Interdisciplinary Methodologies

12.2 The Data factory business and operation models

12.2.1 The Data factory business and operation models

12.2.2 The Data factory business and operation models

12.2.3 The Data factory business and operation models

12.2.4 The Data factory business and operation models

12.2.5 The Data factory business and operation models

12.3 Opportunities for Society 5.0

12.3.1 From IR4.0 to S5.0

  • From the information society…
    • In the past information society, the common practice was to collect information via the network and have it analyzed by humans.
  • … to Society 5.0
    • In Society 5.0, however, people, things, and systems are all connected in cyberspace and optimal results are obtained by AI exceeding the capabilities of humans.
  • If successful…
    • This process brings new value to industry and society in ways not previously possible.

For the first time in human history, autonomous systems are capable of performing complex tasks:

  • Processing large quantities of information
  • Predicting
  • Learning and adapting responses to changing situations in real time
  • Recognizing and classifying objects

12.3.2 A theoretical framework: 4 pillars

  • Public Institutions
    • More efficient policy-making
    • Better judicial system -Better environmental outcomes
    • Bolstering public safety
  • Civil society
    • Better health care
    • Better mobility
    • Creating wealth
    • Augmented agriculture
  • Private companies
    • Better risk management
    • Resource usage optimization
    • Technological progress
  • Individuals
    • Augmented individual
    • Creating wealth
    • Robots and caring for aging populations

12.3.3 Society 5.0

  • Health care
  • Smart mobility
  • Sustainable development
  • Demographics
  • Economic development
    • Finance and risk management
    • Industrial Organization
    • Strategy
    • Management
    • Marketing
    • Human Resources

Achieving Society 5.0 with these attributes would enable the world to realize economic development while solving key social problems.

12.4 Challenges for Society 5.0

  • However, the development of artificial intelligence does pose major ethical challenges and social risks.

  • The first danger of artificial intelligence development consists in giving the illusion that we can master the future through calculations.

  • Public Institutions

    • Democracies
    • Influence politics
    • Clash with fundamental rights
  • Civil society

    • Digital divide
    • Exacerbate social and economic inequalities
    • Disrupt the organization of labor and the job market
    • Lower living standards
  • Private companies

    • Cyber risks
    • Risks of tacit collusion = Moore’s law + Metcalfe’s law + Barabasi
  • Individuals

    • Personal data protection
    • Ethics (discrimination, etc.)
    • Restricting the choices of individuals and groups
  • There is no such thing as zero risk, it is up to the society to determine the moral and political ends to face the risks encountered in an uncertain world.

  • Individuals

    • Weber (2005) “Helpless machines and true loving care givers: a feminist critique of recent trends in human‐robot interaction”
  • The critical importance of data

12.5 Potential solutions

12.5.1 It is even worse…

  • Stahl (2011): “New problems may include changes to the way humans are perceived and the role of humans and technology in society. This includes changing power structures and different ways of treating humans.”

12.5.2 Two examples

  • European Union
    • GDPR, 2016
    • Impact Study (article 35)
    • Rainey & goujon (2011) “A normative approach is possible and required in order to implement ethics in research and development in technology.”
  • Montreal Declaration for Responsible AI
    • Well-being, respect for autonomy, privacy and intimacy, solidarity, democratic participation, equity, diversity inclusion, prudence, responsibility, sustainable development.
  • The Montreal Declaration for responsible AI development has three main objectives:
    1. Develop an ethical framework for the development and deployment of AI;
    2. Guide the digital transition so everyone benefits from this technological revolution;
    3. Open a national and international forum for discussion to collectively achieve equitable, inclusive, and ecologically sustainable AI development.

12.5.3 What’s missing…

  • Across the world

  • Economic understanding